4 May 2014
Smoking and other tobacco content are common in films marketed to children and young people, but television has the potential to reach far larger audiences than films alone. A British study has found that up to 12 percent of television programming in the United Kingdom, particularly feature films and reality TV, contain tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking.
Specific tobacco brand appearances were rare and sometimes occurred in historical footage, but arose predominantly from images of point-of-sale displays broadcast in news and other factual reporting, and in fictional soap opera and other drama.
Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 9:00 p.m., the UK watershed for programs suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience younger than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week.
“More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television…have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK,” the study concluded.
1. Lyons A, McNeill A, Britton J. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television. Tobacco Control 2014; 23: 257-263 (open access)
3 May 2014
Determinants of Health
policy, public health
The Union of Concerned Scientists is hosting a forum on Science, Democracy, and a Healthy Food Policy on Tuesday, 6 May 2014, at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis–and will be available via live webcast.
The forum will provide an opportunity for policy makers, health advocates, and the public to learn how to improve food policy through science from effective local efforts across the United States.
Click here to learn more about the forum and to register.
7 Feb 2014
Cancer, Medical Education
The Global Oncology Initiative is hosting a symposium, Global Cancer Care: Challenges and Opportunities, on Saturday, 8 February, from 8:00 a.m – 6:00 p.m EST.
A live broadcast will be available on the symposium page.
Symposium topics include:
- Burden of cancer in low- and middle-income countries
- Barriers to cancer therapies in low-resource settings
- Innovative solutions to improve access to cancer care
Keynote presenters include:
- Thomas Gross, MD, PhD, deputy director of science, NCI Center for Global Health
- Rifat Atun, MBBS, MBA, professor of international health management, Imperial College London
- Paul Farmer, MD, PhD, professor of global health and social medicine, Harvard Medical School and co-founder, Partners in Health
Online participation is encouraged. Presenters will answer questions submitted electronically or via social media. Questions may be submitted by using Twitter hashtag #askGlobalOnc, or sending email to email@example.com.
Follow Global Oncology on Twitter (@GlobalOnc) and Facebook.
The Global Oncology Initiative is an academic and community-based organization based in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, leading efforts in global oncology and working to improve cancer care and research in resource-sensitive settings.
5 Feb 2014
The proportion of adults in the United States who smoke declined from 20.9 percent in 2005 to 18.1 percent in 2012, according to data from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey.
The smoking rate in 2012 was significantly higher among males (20.5 percent) than females (15.8 percent) and among persons aged 18–24 years (17.3 percent), 25–44 years (21.6 percent), and 45–64 years (19.5 percent) than among those aged 65 years or older (8.9 percent).
The decline in smoking is encouraging and likely reflects the success of tobacco control efforts across the country, according to researchers. For example: the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act granted the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products; the 2009 Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act raised the federal tax rate for cigarettes from $0.39 to $1.01 per pack; and the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provided expanded coverage for evidence-based smoking-cessation treatments. Also, in 2012 the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) debuted Tips from Former Smokers (TIPS), the first federally funded, nationwide, paid-media tobacco education campaign in the United States. During the campaign, calls to the quitline portal 1-800-QUIT-NOW increased 132 percent, and the number of unique visitors to a smoking cessation website (www.smokefree.gov) increased 428 percent. An estimated 1.6 million quit attempts were attributable to the campaign.
Additionally, smoking prevalence was:
- highest among adults of multiple races (26.1 percent) and lowest among Asians (10.7 percent);
- highest among persons with a graduate education development certificate (41.9 percent) and lowest among those with a graduate (5.9 percent) or undergraduate (9.1 percent) degree;
- higher among persons living below the poverty level (27.9 percent) than those living at or above this level (17 percent); and
- higher among people living in the South (19.7 percent) and Midwest (20.6 percent) than those in the West (14.2 percent) and Northeast (16.5 percent).
1. Agaku IT, King BA, Dube SR. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults—United States, 2005–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2014; 63(02): 29-34. (open access)
9 Aug 2013
Cardiovascular Disease, Lifestyle Factors
diet, heart disease, nutrition
Increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables could save more than 100,000 lives and $17 billion in health care costs from heart disease each year in the United States, according to a new report by the Union of Concerned Scientists.
The report, The $11 Trillion Dollar Reward, explains that better federal agricultural policies, designed to encourage production of healthy food instead of processed junk foods, will help reap those benefits.
If Americans consumed just one additional serving of fruits or vegetables a day, the nation would save $5 billion in health care expenditures and prevent 30,301 heart disease and stroke deaths annually. And if Americans were to go a step further and eat a full 2.5 cups of vegetables and two cups of fruit daily, as recommended by federal dietary guidelines, it could prevent 127,261 deaths each year and save $17 billion in medical costs. The economic value of the lives saved from cardiovascular diseases is an astounding $11 trillion, according to the report.
The report researchers advocate for cost-effective policies that increase access to and reduce the cost of domestically grown fruits and vegetables for consumers, especially for low-income consumers who are hardest hit by cardiovascular disease and other diet-related illnesses. Low-income neighborhoods–where some 30 million Americans reside–are often far from grocery stores and other sources of fresh produce, hindering access.
Current federal agricultural policies channel taxpayer dollars into subsidies for commodity crops, such as corn and soybeans, which are used as feed for livestock, biofuels and as processed food ingredients. These policies offer few incentives for farmers to grow fruits and vegetables–effectively discouraging production of the very foods federal dietary guidelines recommend.
A three-minute video produced by UCS summarizes how we can achieve an $11 trillion reward through forward-looking agricultural policies.
1. O’Hara JK. The $11 Trillion Reward: How Simple Dietary Changes Can Save Lives and Money, and How We Get There. Cambridge, Mass.: Union of Concerned Scientists, 2013.
9 Aug 2013
Between 2007 and 2010, 41 countries and territories implemented tobacco control policies that will collectively result in 15 million fewer smokers and prevent nearly 7.5 million smoking-related deaths globally by 2050, according to a World Health Organization (WHO) study.
These findings demonstrate the magnitude of the actions already taken by countries and underscore the potential for millions of additional lives to be saved with continued adoption of MPOWER policies. To assist countries with implementing Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) obligations, in 2008 the WHO introduced the MPOWER package of evidence-based tobacco control measures. The MPOWER package includes: Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policies; Protecting people from the dangers of tobacco smoke; Offering help to quit tobacco; Warning the public about the dangers of tobacco; Enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship; and Raising tobacco taxes. The goal of the MPOWER package is to reduce smoking-attributable deaths, which are projected to rise to 8.3 million annually by 2030.
The largest number of smoking-related deaths was averted as a result of increased cigarette taxes (3.5 million), smoke-free air laws (2.5 million), health warnings (700,000), cessation treatments (380,000), and bans on tobacco marketing (306,000).
“It is imperative that the public health community continue to advocate for MPOWER policies of the highest level,” the study concluded.
1. Levy DT, Ellis JA, Mays D, Huang A-T. Smoking-related deaths averted due to three years of policy progress. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013; 91:509-518. (open access)
7 Aug 2013
Cardiovascular Disease, Lifestyle Factors
exercise, heart disease, physical activity
Physical activity recommendations in early childhood should be a focus of future cardiovascular disease prevention efforts, according to a study of 3,000 children age 2-9 years from eight European countries.
The age and sex of the children are important factors in determining the right physical activity requirements. Boys age six years or younger need at least 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day, whereas boys age 6-9 years need at least 80 minutes. Girls in either age group need approximately 15 minutes less. Recommendations should also include 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity per day in all children.
Clinicians should avoid using generalized physical activity guidelines and evaluate children at risk of cardiovascular disease on a case-by-case basis, the researchers said.
1. Jiménez-Pavón D, Konstabel K, Bergman P, et al. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors in young children: a cross-sectional study (the IDEFICS study). BMC Medicine 2013; 11: 172. (open access)
2. McMurray RG. Insights into physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk in young children: IDEFICS study. BMC Medicine 2013; 11: 173. (open access)