An effective concerted effort to strengthen malaria control globally in the last decade has had the greatest impact in countries with high malaria transmission. Close to 60 percent of the 1.1 million lives saved during this period were in the 10 highest burden countries. However, the expansion of funding for malaria prevention and control has leveled off in recent years, and progress in the delivery of some life-saving commodities has slowed. These developments are signs of a slowdown that could threaten to reverse the recent gains in the fight against one of the world’s leading infectious diseases, according to the World Malaria Report 2012.
The number of long-lasting insecticidal neets delivered to endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa dropped from a peak of 145 million in 2010 to an estimated 66 million in 2012. The expansion of indoor residual spraying programs also leveled off, with coverage levels in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region staying at 11 percent of the population at risk (77 million people) between 2010-2011.
The malaria burden is concentrated in 14 endemic countries, which account for an estimated 80 percent of malaria deaths. The Democratic Republic of the Congo and Nigeria are the most affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa, while India is the most affected country in South-East Asia.
The report indicates that international funding for malaria appears to have reached a plateau well below the level required to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals and other internationally-agreed global malaria targets.
While the plateauing of funding is affecting the scale-up of some interventions, the report documents a major increase in the sales of rapid diagnostics tests, from 88 million in 2010 to 155 million in 2011, as well as a substantial improvement in the quality of tests over recent years. Deliveries to countries of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), the treatment recommended by the WHO for the treatment of falciparum malaria, also increased substantially, from 181 million in 2010 to 278 million in 2011, largely as a result of increased sales of subsidized ACTs in the private sector.
The report summarizes information received from 99 countries with on-going transmission and other sources, and updates the analyses presented in the 2011 report. Malaria is an entirely preventable and treatable vector-borne disease. In 2010, an estimated 219 million cases occurred globally, while the disease killed about 660,000 people, mostly children under age five years.
1. World Health Organization. World Malaria Report 2012. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO, 2012.